Difference Between BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutation l BRCA1 vs BRCA2 Mutation


The key difference between BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation is that the change in the genetic code of BRCA1 gene (BReast CAncer genes 1), which is located in the chromosome 17, is BRCA1 mutation while the change in the genetic code of BRCA2 gene (BReast CAncer genes 2), which is present in the chromosome 13, is BRCA2 mutation.

BRCA1 and BRCA2 (BReast CAncer genes 1 and 2) are two well-known genes associated with the risk of breast cancer. Therefore, when they function normally, these two genes code for tumor suppressor proteins. Tumor suppressor proteins help cells to repair DNA damages efficiently and keep the cells safe. Genetic codes of these genes can change, thus, causing mutations. Over 100 BRCA mutations have been identified up to now. Some mutations do not cause health risks while few create breast and ovarian cancers in women. Furthermore, BRCA mutations can increase the risk of several other cancers such as colon cancer, pancreatic cancer, and prostate cancer, etc.

CONTENTS

1. Overview and Key Difference
2. What is BRCA1 Mutation
3. What is BRCA2 Mutation
4. Similarities Between BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutation
5. Side by Side Comparison – BRCA1 vs BRCA2 Mutation in Tabular Form
6. Summary

What is BRCA1 Mutation?

BRCA1 gene is one of the breast cancer linked gene locates in the chromosome 17. When the genetic code of BRCA1 gene changes, it is known as BRCA1 mutation. BRCA1 mutations cause breast cancers, and they are often triple negative. These mutations are harder to treat as they don’t respond well to hormonal therapies.

Difference Between BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutation l BRCA1 vs BRCA2 Mutation

Figure 01: BRCA Genes

Furthermore, when BRCA1 mutated, it increases the risk of ovarian cancer by age 70 in 54% for women. BRCA1 mutations inherit from parents. However, they can be acquired as well. When compare BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations, BRCA1 mutations are more common.

What is BRCA2 Mutation?

BRCA2 gene is present in the chromosome 13. When the genetic code of this gene changes, it is a mutation of BRCA2. BRCA2 mutations cause for breast cancers, and they are less common than BRCA1 mutations.

Difference Between BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutation l BRCA1 vs BRCA2 Mutation

Figure 02: Breast Cancer

Moreover, the hormonal therapies can treat these mutations. The risk of developing ovarian cancer by the age of 70 is 27% in women who have BRCA2 mutations.

What are the Similarities Between BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutation?

  • Both BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations have a risk of creating breast cancer in women.
  • These mutations can inherit to next generation.
  • BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations are rare in the general population.
  • Both mutations increase the risk of ovarian cancers as well.

What is the Difference Between BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutation?

BRCA1 and BRCA2 are two genes associated with breast and ovarian cancers. When their genetic codes changed, we call it a BRCA1 mutation and BRCA2 mutation respectively. Furthermore, BRCA1 mutations are more common than BRCA2 mutations. The below infographic shows more details on the difference between BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation.

Difference Between BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutation l BRCA1 vs BRCA2 Mutation

Summary – BRCA1 vs BRCA2 Mutation

BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations occur when the gene sequences of both genes change. These mutations have an increased risk of breast and ovarian cancer. They are rare in the normal population. Compared to BRCA2 mutations, BRCA1 mutations are more common, and they are often triple negative. This is the difference between BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation.

Reference:

1.“BRCA Mutation.” Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, 27 July 2018. Available here
2.“BRCA1 And BRCA2 Mutations | Breast Cancer.” The Breast Care Site, 2 June 2015. Available here  

Image Courtesy:

1.”BRCA Genes”By Tessssa13 – Own work, (CC BY-SA 4.0) via Commons Wikimedia  
2.”BreastCancer”By Emmanuelm (talk) – Own work (CC BY 3.0) via Commons Wikimedia  

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