Difference Between Mitochondrial DNA and Chloroplast DNA | Mitochondrial DNA vs Chloroplast DNA

The key difference between mitochondrial DNA and chloroplast DNA is that mitochondrial DNA is present inside the mitochondria of eukaryotic cells while chloroplast DNA is present inside the chloroplasts of plant cells.

Mitochondria and chloroplasts are two important membrane-bound organelles in eukaryotic cells. Mitochondria are the powerhouses of cells. On the other hand, chloroplasts are the sites of photosynthesis in plants. Both mitochondria and chloroplasts are believed to be originated from prokaryotic cells to eukaryotic cells through endosymbiosis. These two organelles contain their own DNA. Though this DNA is not nuclear DNA of a cell and not important for the functioning of the cell, it is important for some of their own cell organelle properties.


1. Overview and Key Difference
2. What is Mitochondrial DNA 
3. What is Chloroplast DNA
4. Similarities Between Mitochondrial DNA and Chloroplast DNA
5. Side by Side Comparison – Mitochondrial DNA vs Chloroplast DNA in Tabular Form
6. Summary

What is Mitochondrial DNA?

Mitochondria are one of the most vital cell organelles present in eukaryotic cells. In fact, they are the powerhouses of eukaryotic cells as they carry out energy production. Mitochondria are double membrane-bound organelles. Electron transport chain occurs in the inner mitochondrial membrane. Mitochondria possess some DNA within the organelle. This DNA is important for some of their properties. Moreover, DNA carries different genes important for the proper functioning of the organelles. Mitochondrial DNA is a double-stranded circular DNA present in the mitochondrial matrix. In addition, mtDNA is a synonym for mitochondrial DNA. M. M. K. Nass and S. Nass discovered mtDNA via electron microscopy.